UNDERSTANDING CBD

CBD stand for CANNABIDIOL, it is the most naturally occurring and abundant non-psychoactive cannabinoid component which is found in cannabis extract (Stalks and seeds), and comprises up to 40% of the plant extract.

It has been found by the scientists that the hemp plant consist of 483 phytochemicals, many of them being Terpenoids. A sub-class of Terpenoids are the Cannabinoids. There are 60 kinds of Cannabinoids found only in the cannabis/hemp plant making it a treasure in plant kingdom and also between scientists.

CBD has generated interests among the scientists and physicians in recent years, but how CBD actually works and exerts it’s therapeutic impact on a molecular level is still a mystery that Scooby Doo might be able to solve with Shaggy being high all the time.

While THC binds with the CB1 receptors, CBD has shown little affinity towards both the CB1 and CB2 receptors. CBD works in it’s mysterious ways through various receptor independent pathways- for example, by delaying the “reuptake” of endogenous neurotransmitters (such as anandamide and adenosine) and by enhancing or inhibiting the binding action of certain G-protein coupled receptors.
Some of the ways CBD manifold it’s therapeutic effects-

  • Serotonin Receptors – At high concentrations, CBD is found to directly activate the 5-HT1A (hydroxytryptamine) serotonin receptor which confers anti-anxiety effects. This G-coupled protein receptor is implicated in a range of biological and neurological processes, including (but not limited to) anxiety, addiction, appetite, sleep, pain perception, nausea and vomiting. 5-HT receptors trigger various intracellular cascades of chemical messages to produce either an excitatory or inhibitory response, depending on the chemical context of the message.
  • Vanilloid receptors – CBD directly interacts with the ions channel such as TRPV1 to confer a therapeutic effect. TRPV (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V) is one of several dozen TRP (pronounced “trip”) receptor variants or subfamilies that mediate the effects of a wide range of medicinal herbs. CBD binds to TRPV1, which can influence pain perception.
  • GPR55- Orphanage receptors – Some studies suggest that CBD works to block or deactivate another G-coupled receptor known as GPR55. GPR55 is widely expressed in the brain, especially in the cerebellum. It is involved in modulating blood pressure and bone density, among other physiological processes.GPR55 promotes osteoclast cell function, which facilitates bone reabsorption. Overactive GPR55 receptor signaling is associated with osteoporosis.GPR55, when activated, also promotes cancer cell proliferation, according to a 2010 study by researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Shanghai. This receptor is expressed in various types of cancer.
  • PPARs-Nuclear receptors – CBD exerts anti-cancer effects on activating PPARs [peroxisome proliferator activated receptors] that are situated on the surface of the cell’s nucleus. Upon activation PPARs gamma has an anti-proliferative effect as well as an ability to induce tumor regression in human lung cancer cell lines. PPAR-gamma activation degrades amyloid-beta plaque, thus helping cure the Alzheimer disease.
  • PPARs-Nuclear receptors – CBD exerts anti-cancer effects on activating PPARs [peroxisome proliferator activated receptors] that are situated on the surface of the cell’s nucleus. Upon activation PPARs gamma has an anti-proliferative effect as well as an ability to induce tumor regression in human lung cancer cell lines. PPAR-gamma activation degrades amyloid-beta plaque, thus helping cure the Alzheimer disease.
  • CBD as a reuptake inhibiter – Fatty acid binding protein (FABP) chaperones CBD through the cell membrane inside the cell. CBD modulate receptors on the surface of the nucleus, which regulate gene expression and mitochondrial activity.
    CBD has a strong affinity towards three kinds of FABP’s and competes with our endocannabinoids, which are fatty acids for the same transport molecules. Once inside CBD interferes with the process of breaking down of anandamide by FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase) by reducing anandamide’s access to FABP transport molecules and delaying endocannabinoid passage into the cell’s interior.
    CBD functions as an anandamide reuptake and breakdown inhibitor, thereby raising endocannabinoid levels in the brain’s synapses. Enhancing endocannabinod tone via reuptake inhibition may be a key mechanism whereby CBD confers neuroprotective effects against seizures, as well as many other health benefits.
  • CBD as an allosteric modulator – CBD functions as an allosteric modulator by either enhancing or by inhibiting how a receptor transmits a signal by changing the shape of the receptor. CBD interacts with the GABA-A receptors to enhance the receptor’s binding affinity for gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. GABA receptor transmission mediates the sedating effects of the valium and other Benzos. CBD reduces anxiety by changing the shape of the GABA-A receptor in a way that amplifies the natural calming effect of GABA.
    While CBD doesn’t bind to the CB1 receptor directly like THC does, CBD interacts allosterically with CB1 and changes the shape of the receptor in a way that weakens CB1’s ability to bind with THC.As a negative allosteric modulator of the CB1 receptor, CBD lowers the ceiling on THC’s psychoactivity—which is why people don’t feel as “high” when using CBD-rich cannabis compared to when they consume THC-dominant medicine. A CBD-rich product with little THC can convey therapeutic benefits without having a euphoric or dysphoric effect.